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Table 1 Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate-induced simple synthesis of vanillin from curcumin following Figure 1

From: Bismuth nitrate-induced microwave-assisted expeditious synthesis of vanillin from curcumin

Entry Solid surface Method/solvent Yield (%)
1 Florisil Dean-Stark/Benzene NRa
2 Silica gel Dean-Stark/Benzene NR
3 Molecular sieves Dean-Stark/Benzene NR
4 KSF clay Dean-Stark/Benzene 10
5 Neutral alumina Dean-Stark/Benzene NR
6 Florisil Reflux/DCM NR
7 Silica gel Reflux/DCM NR
8 Molecular sieves Reflux/DCM NR
9 KSF clay Reflux/DCM 34
10 Neutral alumina Reflux/DCM 15
11 Florisil Dryb NR
12 Silica gel Dry NR
13 Molecular sieves Dry NR
14 KSF clay Dry NR
15 Neutral alumina Dry NR
16 Florisil Microwave/solvent free 60
17 Silica gel Microwave/solvent free 54
18 Molecular sieves Microwave/solvent free 45
19 KSF clay Microwave/solvent free 77
20 Neutral alumina Microwave/solvent free 61
21 Florisil Reflux/Benzene NR
22 Silica gel Reflux/Benzene NR
23 Molecular sieves Reflux/Benzene NR
24 KSF clay Reflux/Benzene NR
25 Neutral alumina Reflux/Benzene NR
  1. aNo reaction
  2. bWithout microwave irradiation, room temperature